This horse breed of oriental saddle horses was formed in Kazakh, Akstafa and Tauz regions of Azerbaijan and adjacent areas of Georgia and Armenia. Some earlier publications described it as the “Kazakh” horse of Azerbaijan or as the Azerbaijan horse.
Specialists singled out a specific Deliboz type among large horse populations studied in the 1930s and late 1940s. Those horses were improved by Arabian and Karabakh saddle-type stallions. Deliboz horse breed spread widely throughout western Azerbaijan. In 1943 a State Breeding Cooperative was established to improve horse populations of the Republic.
Since the 1950s Azerbaijan horses have been improved by Arabian and Tersk sires while Karabakh was bred separately. Crossbreeding involved horses of the Deliboz type.
Deliboz horses differ from others by a clean, short head with a broad forehead and narrow nose, a compact heavy neck, a ribbed massive body with a good top line and an even, long back and loin. Legs are clean and well proportioned and the cannon bone girth is larger than that of other horses.
Deliboz is characterized by unstable temperament and predominantly rack (or pace) gait. A typical feature is a peculiar lengthwise fold on the tongue giving the impression of a forked tongue.
Average withers height is 152 cm, chest girth 172 cm and cannon bone girth 19.4 cm.
The Deliboz horses show good working capacity. They easily cover 45-55 km a day in highlands under a pack weighing 115-130 kg, and 70 km under a rider. The best racing results are 1 min 56 sec for 1600 m and 2 min 55 sec for 2400 m.
At present the pedigree nucleus of Deliboz is represented by descendants of Tersk stallions Tselostat and Pygmalion; therefore the problem arises of how to restore the breeding nucleus of local horses. Dashyuz stud farm has the 140 most typical Deliboz horses including breeding mares with a high proportion of Tersk blood. It is planned to breed them pure but with single back crossing to one or two stallions with little Tersk blood in order to preserve the valuable traits of the crosses.
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The Djerma is found in middle Niger in western Africa. It is a light horse breed which is predominately dark in coloration. The Djerma originated from the Barb and Dongola breeds.
This breed originated in the Gudbrandsdal Valley which connects the Oslo region with the North Sea coast. It is likely that the Friesian played a part in the breeding of the Døle due to the similarity between the two. The Friesians traded heavily with Britain, Norway and the Rhine Delta during the period from 400 to 800 A.D.
The Døle horse of today is found in two types. A heavy work horse and a light draft horse, the cold-blooded trotter. The difference between the two types has been greatly reduced in recent years due to interbreeding between the types. This interbreeding is now becoming very common and the breed is becoming very uniform.
The heavy type of Døle are tested for pulling power and trotting when presented for grading. X-rays of the knee and lower leg are taken in lighter trotting type, and animals with defects are disqualified for breeding. Stallions of this must have achieved satisfactory results on the track before being used as a stud. Three year olds may be issued a temporary stallion license if their conformation, breeding and trotting ability are acceptable. Quality of the Døle has improved during the last several years due to the organized selection of breeding stock. Bay or brown are the predominate colors of the Døle horse but black and chestnut are also fairly common. There are a few grays and duns. Some animals will have white markings on the head and legs, especially among animals of the trotter type. The Døle horse is one of the smallest cold bloods. This horse has an excellent trot and great pulling power. It is agile and active and shows great stamina.
The Dongola is a light horse found in northern Sudan and western Eritrea. The breed is reddish-bay and often has a white face-blaze and feet. The West African Dongola and Sudanese Country Bred were developed from the Dongola. The breed is rare.
The ponies look quite primitive and coarse. Some have the usual dun coloring, while others are brown, black, or chestnut, indicating infusion of outside blood. The ponies have poor hindquarters and a short neck.
The Dulmen was found near the town of Duelmen, in the Merfelder Bruch area where ponies have been documented since the early 1300s. It is believed that the Dulmen developed for primitive types, as it still has some primitive characteristics.
The ponies lived in wild herds across Westphalia until the 19th century, when land was divided and separated and the ponies began to lose their habitat. There is only one wild herd left today, owned by the Duke of Croy, that roams 860 acres (3.5 km²) of the Meerfelder Bruch. The Dukes of Croy first helped the herd in the mid-1800s.
The ponies make good children’s ponies and adapt to domesticated life well. They are also good for driving in harness, and are also used to work the land.
Not as tall as most of his other draft coleagues, the Dutch Draft on average stands 16 hands plus. Colours are Chestnut, bay, roan and gray, with black sometimes seen. He sports heavy feathering on the legs. This horse is sometimes mistaken for the Belgian, as his conformation and colouring are often similar. His head is straight inprofile and topped with short but expressive ears. Strong muscles and powerful legs are this horse’s second best attribute. The first is his quiet disposition, one that is so often shared by other draft horses.
But the Dutch Heavy Draft can “turn a lively foot” when required, which makes him quite suitable for working the heavy soil. Not surprisingly, he is the heaviest of all the Dutch horses, making him the horse of choice for hauling heavy loads for extended periods.
The Dutch Heavy Draft was developed from the Zeeland Horse with some Belgian and Belgian Ardennes influence. This Breed is a rarity today.
The Dutch Warmblood is a “warmblood sport horse” breed. Warmblood simply distinguishes this type of horse from the “cold bloods” (draft horses) and the “hot bloods” (Thoroughbreds and Arabs). Sport horse refers to the intended use of the breed – as a competitive and recreational horse for the major international equestrian disciplines of dressage, jumping, 3-day event, and driving.
The modern Dutch Warmblood evolved from the two “native” Dutch breeds – the Gelderlander and the Groningen.
The Gelderlander, which evolved on the light sandy soils of central Holland was a stylish horse of medium stature, frequently chestnut with flashy white markings; while the Groningen evolved on the heavy clay soils of northern Holland into a larger and heavier horse, frequently black.
In the heyday of coaching in the 19th century, horses were imported to Europe from England – the Norfolk Trotter, the Yorkshire Coach, the Cleveland Bay, the Hackney – to be crossed on the native mares, becoming the ancestors of the moden sport horses of today’s foremost horse-breeding countries and regions. As horse use grew to include more farm work, the breeding goal changed. The farm horses had to be all-round horses honest and tractable enough for plowing, yet stylish enough for carriage use and for riding. As farm mechanization progressed after World War II, the breeding goal was redirected toward producing pleasure sport horses. During this process of modernization, there was again considerable foreign influence from France, England (Thoroughbreds), and Germany (Holsteiners and Trakehners).
Today in Holland there are three distinct types of horses bred.
The most numerous and internationally important is the “Rijpaardtype” or Riding Horse Type a distinctly modern, elegant sport horse bred for athleticism, good character and soundness. International jumpers, dressage horses, combined driving, and vaulting horses are selected from this category.
It is a remarkable sport horse which has made a meteoric rise to prominence in the international equestrian world in recent years. The Who’s Who of international superstars includes names like Calypso, Next Milton, Big Ben, Ampere, Ommen, Zucarlos, Linky, Eastern Sunrise, Pascal, Ideaal and many more.
The success of the Dutch horse is no accident. The same characteristics and approach, which have made The Netherlands preeminent in agriculture and commerce, have been applied to their goal to breed the best sport horse in the world.
The Dutch breeding program and rigorous selection procedures coordinate to realize this goal. The Dutch horse is selectively bred for good conformation, good gaits, excellent character, performance ability, and soundness.